one. Under Section 708 (c) (1) of the Defense Production Act (DPA) of 1950, the Administrator established that there are conditions that could pose an imminent threat to the national defence of the United States or its custody programs and certified to the Attorney General, in accordance with the provisions of Section 708, that a standby agreement on the use of intermodal transportation/navigation services for national defence was required. The Attorney General, in agreement with the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, stated that the industry could not make dry freight capabilities available to meet national defence requirements through a voluntary agreement with less anti-competitive effects or without voluntary agreement. The use of space charter and ship-sharing agreements increased in the late 1980s and early 1990s, although the vast majority of these agreements (such as the original VSA) often focused on a single trade route. During this period, a relatively small number of lines were considered “global” airlines and were often operated by a combination of separate cords that did not include partners, ship-sharing trade agreements and space charter agreements. As world trade has increased and the phenomenon of globalization has emerged, airlines have tried to meet the transportation needs of their increasingly global customers. As a result, airlines have moved to broader geographical cooperation, which the CMF has described as “global alliances,” including the Grand Alliance, the New World Alliance and the CKYH Alliance. These agreements were not really global, but they were often broader geographically and included more integrated and long-term cooperation than many of their predecessors. But the goal was always the same: to provide a better service than could be offered on its own, while reducing operating costs and capital risks.
2. According to 44 CFR 332.2 (c), MARAD is responsible for the establishment and recording of a complete and literal copy of each JPAG meeting. MARAD forwards this minutes and any voluntary agreement resulting from the meeting to the Attorney General, the President of the FTC, the Director-FEMA, any other party prescribed by law or any repository, and to the participants at their request. Organic Maritime – For the purposes of this agreement, vessels under state control or long-term chartering will be fast-lifts, ready reserve force and merchant vessels under long-term chartering to DoD. In return for its commitment to the VISA system, DOD awards priority transport contracts to VISA participants. The allocation of DOD cargoes to meet DOD peace and emergency requirements is based on the following priorities: the capacity of the U.S.-flagged vessel operated by VISA participants and the capacity of the U.S.-flag-flag vessel Sharing Agreement (VSA) held by VISA participants; The capacity of the U.S.-flagged vessel operated by non-participants; the combination of U.S.-flagged vessels operated by VISA participants and the S.S. flag/foreign flag combination of VSA capacity held by VISA participants; combination of U.S.-flagged vessels operated by non-participants; U.S. vessels, clean or operated, foreign-flagged and VSA capacity held by VISA participants; U.S. vessels, clean or operated, foreign-flagged and VSA-owned by non-participants; and foreign or operated vessels flying the foreign flag of non-participants. B. Us flag ship capacity operated by a non-participant.
The last agreement that started this year is the one between Maersk Line and MSC. They concluded the agreement with another number of ships, Maersk with about 110 and MSC with 75. Any U.S.-flagged ship operator seeking priority consideration for DOD peace agreements must register 100% of its useful military capabilities and services in the VISA program and commit no less than 50% of its total U.S. flag capacity to Visa Level III.