In Sweden, about 90% of employees are subject to collective agreements and 83% in the private sector (2017).   Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. Sweden does not have legislation on minimum wages or legislation extending collective agreements to disorganised employers. Unseated employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many do not. The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to jobs and workers covered by collective agreements.  In Sweden, the scope of collective agreements is very high, although there are no legal mechanisms to extend agreements to entire sectors. In 2018, 83% of all private sector employees were subject to collective agreements, 100% of public sector employees and 90% in total (compared to the overall labour market).  This reflects the predominance of self-regulation (regulation by the labour market parties themselves) over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.  Some collective agreements concern the general relationship between employers` and employer organizations and trade unions. These agreements generally address issues such as participation, negotiation procedures and the definition of common objectives related to future labour market developments and employers. Agreements are generally reached between federal employers` organizations and their central union counterparts at the federal level with the above themes.
In 1931, the Supreme Court was appointed in the Texas – N.O.R. Co. Brotherhood of Railway Clerks case, upholding the prohibition of employer intervention in the selection of negotiators.  In 1962, President Kennedy signed an executive order that gives public employee unions the right to bargain collectively with federal authorities.  The United States recognizes collective agreements.    The definition of a collective agreement is found in the Participation Act, which states that a collective agreement is a written agreement between employers` organizations or an employer, on the one hand, and a workers` organization, on the other, which regulates the conditions of employment or the relationship between employers and workers. An agreement is considered written if its contents are recorded in approved minutes or if a proposal for agreement and acceptance are recorded in separate documents.