A gentleman`s agreement, defined in the early 20th century as “an agreement between gentlemen working on price controls,” has been described by one source as the loosest form of a “pool.”  It has been pointed out that such agreements can be found in all types of industries and are numerous in the steel and iron industries.  Gentlemen`s agreements were a widespread discriminatory tactic that would have been more common than restrictive alliances to preserve the homogeneity of upper-class neighborhoods and suburbs in the United States.  The nature of these agreements made them extremely difficult to prove or prosecute, and they were so long after the U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Shelley v. Kraemer and Barrows v. Jackson.  One source claims that gentlemen`s agreements “undoubtedly still exist,” but that their use has declined sharply.  The increase in Japanese immigration, in part to replace excluded Chinese farm workers, has met with concerted opposition in California. In order to appease Californians and avoid an open break with Japan`s emerging world power, President Theodore Roosevelt negotiated this diplomatic agreement, under which the Japanese government took responsibility for the severe restriction of Japanese immigration, especially of workers, so that Japanese-American children could continue to attend integrated schools on the West Coast. However, family migration could continue, as Japanese-American men with sufficient savings could bring wives through arranged marriages (“picture brides”), their parents, and minor children. As a result, the Japan-U.S. population was more balanced than other Asian-American communities and continued to grow through natural growth, resulting in increased pressure to end their immigration and further diminish the rights of the resident population.